Life Sciences and Agriculture

Journal of Plant Protection Research

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Journal of Plant Protection Research | 2021 | vol. 61 | No 1 |

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Abstract

The aim of this work was the determination of the influence of the size of grain moth eggs on qualitative characteristics of Trichogramma evanescens (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) from the second to the seventh generations. The indicators of T. evanescens determine its ability to provide effective plant protection. Using selected large eggs of grain moth T. evanescens reproduction was carried out. As controls, eggs that had only been cleaned were used. These studies were performed with T. evanescens from second to seventh generations. The correlation between the size of grain moth eggs and indicators of T. evanescens such as the level of search ability, the level of regeneration of individuals, the relative number of females, the level of deformed individuals, the lifespan and the fecundity of females were determined. The influence of the size of grain moth eggs on the T. evanescens class was determined. It was found that the use of large grain moth eggs for the production of T. evanescens allowed for maintaining its first class quality from the second to the seventh generations. Trichogramma evanescens from grain moth eggs, which had only been cleaned, had first class quality only up to the fourth generation.
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Authors and Affiliations

Gennadii Golub
1
Oleh Marus
1

  1. Department of Tractors, Automobiles and Bioenergy System, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
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Abstract

Numerous plant species around the world suffer from the presence of viruses, which especially in economically important crops, cause irretrievable damage and/or extensive losses. Many biotechnological approaches have been developed, such as meristem culture, chemotherapy, thermotherapy or cryotherapy, to eliminate viruses from infected plants. These have been used alone or in combination. In this work, meristem culture, thermotherapy and cryotherapy were compared for Apple mosaic virus elimination from hazelnut local cultivar “Palaz”. The virus-free plant was also confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after each treatment and, the best results were obtained by cryotherapy. A one step freezing technique, droplet vitrification, was used for cryotherapy, and the best regeneration percentage was 52%. After cryotherapy, virus-free seedlings of hazelnut local cultivar “Palaz” were confirmed as being virus-free after three subcultured periods.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ergun Kaya
1

  1. Molecular Biology and Genetics, Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Mugla, Turkey
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Abstract

The benefits of Lagos spinach ( Celosia argentea L.) as a medicinal plant and leafy vegetable encourage its production. However, goat weed ( Ageratum conyzoides L.) is a common weed in the agroecological region where C. argentea thrives. Evaluation of the goat weed effect on C. argentea is necessary since the impact of crop-weed interaction varies with species and density. A screen-house study comprising a C. argentea plant with 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 goat weed plants per pot were laid out in a completely randomized design and replicated six times. The experimental treatments were equivalent to 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 goat weed plants per square meter. Growth parameters of C. argentea, such as plant height, number of leaves and number of branches, were recorded weekly. The study also analyzed weight, moisture, ash, lipid, dietary fiber, protein, and carbohydrate content of C. argentea after harvest. The results showed that all the goat weed densities negatively impacted the growth of C. argentea. However, 8 and 10 goat weed plants per pot seemed to have the greatest effect on the growth of C. argentea. The moisture content, ash, crude protein, and crude fiber of C. argentea were significantly reduced by 50–60%, 60–69%, 45–56%, and 42–54%, respectively, due to the goat weed densities, whereas the carbohydrate content increased. Hence, goat weed should be maintained at less than 100 plants per square meter to prevent quantitative and qualitative losses.
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Authors and Affiliations

Olatunde Philip Ayodele
1

  1. Department of Agronomy, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria
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Abstract

β-1,3-glucanases play a major role in combating the abnormal leaf fall disease (ALF) caused by the oomycete Phytophthora spp. in Hevea brasiliensis, the major commercial source of natural rubber. In this study, partial sequences of four novel promoters of different β-1,3-glucanase genomic forms were amplified through inverse PCR from the H. brasiliensis clone RRII 105 and sequence characterized. This is the first report showing β-1,3-glucanase genes driven by a different set of promoter sequences in a single clone of Hevea. The nucleotide sequencing revealed the presence of 913, 582, 553 and 198 bp promoter regions upstream to the translation initiation codon, ‘ATG’, and contained the essential cis-elements that are usually present in biotic/abiotic stress-related plant gene promoters along with other complex regulatory regions. The amplified regions showed strong nucleosome formation potential and in two of the promoters CpG islands were observed indicating the tight regulation of gene expression by the promoters. The functional efficiency of the isolated promoter forms was validated using promoter: reporter gene (GUS) fusion binary vectors through Agrobacterium mediated transformation in Hevea callus and tobacco. GUS gene expression was noticed in Hevea callus indicating that all the promoters are functional. The transgenic tobacco plants showed no GUS gene expression. The implication of these novel promoter regions to co-ordinate the β-1,3-glucanase gene expression can be utilized for defense specific gene expression in future genetic transformation attempts in Hevea and in a wide variety of plant systems.
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Authors and Affiliations

Supriya Radhakrishnan
1 2
Suni Anie Mathew
1 3
Alikunju Saleena
1 4
Arjunan Thulaseedharan
1

  1. Advanced Center for Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Rubber Research Institute of India, Kottayam, Kerala, India
  2. Department of Biotechnology, University of Kerala,Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India
  3. Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
  4. Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, United States of America
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Abstract

The objective of biological control is to reduce chemical treatments on crops. To reduce aphid attacks with the use lady beetles is a positive, respectful alternative since it can maintain an ecological balance. In order to achieve this objective, the Algerian seven-spotted lady beetle ( Coccinella algerica) was bred under laboratory conditions, and biological parameters of this species were studied. The study, conducted from April to May, showed that temperature and relative humidity greatly affected the incubation time of C. algerica eggs. Egg fertility was very high and reached up to 100%. The present work highlighted that the developmental cycle of this lady beetle from the Beni-Douala area (Tizi-Ouzou) passes through five larval stages. The fifth instar larva was recorded for the first time. Indeed, all studies carried out to date have identified only four larval stages in this species and have never mentioned the existence of L5, meaning that this result is original.
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Authors and Affiliations

Karima Benoufella-Kitous
1
Naima Mehalli-Ouldkadi
2
Katia Temzi
1

  1. Laboratory of Production, Improvement and Protection of Plants, Department of Animal and Plant Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Agronomic Sciences, Mouloud Mammeri University of Tizi-Ouzou, Tizi-Ouzou, Algeria
  2. Laboratory of Production, Safeguard of Threatened Species and Crops, Department of Animal and Plant Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Agronomic Sciences, Mouloud Mammeri University of Tizi-Ouzou, Tizi-Ouzou, Algeria
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Abstract

The intensive use of glyphosate in agricultural areas has increased the frequency of weeds that are resistant to herbicides. Thus, this study was aimed to assess the sensitivity and resistance level of Digitaria insularis (L.) Fedde (sourgrass) populations to glyphosate. Sixty two sourgrass populations were collected from the states of Paraná and São Paulo, Brazil, and subjected to glyphosate application at 1,080 and 2,160 g of acid equivalent (a.e.) · ha–1 in screening assays. Five sourgrass populations were selected, three of which are resistant and two of which are susceptible to glyphosate, to determine the resistance factors (RFs) through dose-response studies at two phenological stages of plant growth: the 2–4-leaf stages and the 2–4-tiller stage. The trials were conducted in a greenhouse in accordance with a completely randomized design. In both trials, the control was evaluated based on the score of the visual control symptoms (VC) and the percentage of dry matter (DM) in relation to those of the control (without application). In the screening test, the data obtained for the response variables were adjusted for frequency curves by following the regression model proposed by Gompertz. The results indicated low sensitivity of D. insularis to glyphosate in 100% of the samples from areas in which soybeans are tolerant to this herbicide. Populations with susceptible plants were found in fallow areas, pasture areas and sugar cane fields. Based on the values of VC50 and DM50, the maximum RF obtained among the populations was 15. More advanced stages of development make sourgrass control difficult, requiring doses that are 3.5 times greater than those at the initial stage.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jhonatan Diego Cavalieri
1
Renan Fonseca Nascentes
1
Matheus Mereb Negrisoli
1
Caio Antonio Carbonari
1
Carlos Gilberto Raetano
1

  1. Department of Plant Protection, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil
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Abstract

Deformed wing virus (DWV) is one of the most widespread viral infections of European honey bee Apis mellifera L. worldwide. So far, this is the first study which tested the effect of different ratios of synthetic protein to fat (P : F) diets on the health of broodless nurseaged honey bees in the laboratory. The aim of the current study was to determine the load of DWV in the whole body of A. mellifera that were fed different ratios of P : F diets (25 : 1, 10 : 1, 5 : 1, 1 : 1, 1 : 5, 1 : 10, 1 : 12.5 and 1 : 0 as a control). The methods involved feeding bees the tested diets for 10 days and then measuring the virus titre using qPCR technique. The results showed that DWV concentration decreased as the fat content of diets consumed increased. The copy number of viral genomes declined from 7.5 × 105 in the zero-fat diet (1 : 0) to 1.6 × 102 virus genomes in 1 : 12.5 (P : F). We can conclude that there is a positive relationship between fat diets and bee immunity and overall results suggest a connection between fat diet and bee health, indicating that colony losses can be reduced by providing a certain protein and fat supplemental feeding.
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Authors and Affiliations

Baida Mohsen Alshukri
1
Mushtaq Talib Al-Esawy
1 2

  1. Plant Protection Department, University of Kufa, Najaf Governorate, Iraq
  2. Biosciences Institute, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
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Abstract

Modern agriculture and plant breeding must continuously meet the high and increasingly growing requirements of consumers and recipients. In this context, one of the conditions for effective management of any farm is access to quick and efficient diagnostics of plant pathogens, the result of which, together with the assessment of experts, provide breeders with tools to effectively reduce the occurrence of plant diseases. This paper presents information about biodiversity and spectrum of endophytic and phytopathogenic bacterial species identified in plant samples delivered to the Plant Disease Clinic in 2013–2019. During the tests, using the Biolog Gen III system, the species affiliation of the majority of detected bacterial strains found in plant tissues as an endophyte and not causing disease symptoms on plants was determined. These data were compiled and compared with the number of found identifications for a given species and data on the pathogenicity of bacterial species towards plants. In this way, valuable information for the scientific community was obtained about the species composition of the bacterial microbiome of the crop plants studied by us, which were confronted with available literature data. In the study, special attention was paid to tomato, which is the plant most often supplied for testing in the Plant Disease Clinic due to its economic importance.
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Authors and Affiliations

Weronika Zenelt
1
Krzysztof Krawczyk
2
Natasza Borodynko-Filas
1

  1. Plant Disease Clinic and Bank of Plant Pathogen, Institute of Plant Protection – National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland
  2. Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Institute of Plant Protection – National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of selenium in Pisum sativum L. plants pre-treated with sodium selenite or sodium selenate at a concentration of 10 and 20 μM, and then colonized by pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris). It has been hypothesized that selenium at low concentrations alleviates oxidative stress caused by aphid feeding on pea leaves. The study focused on the generation of reactive oxygen species (superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical), the activities of the antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase) scavenging the reactive oxygen species levels, as well as on total antioxidant activity in pea leaves. Selenium in pea leaves exposed to aphid feeding affected changes in the levels of reactive oxygen species, the activity of studied antioxidant enzymes, and the total antioxidant capacity. Effects depended on the form and concentration of selenium, as well as on the time after the colonization of pea plants by aphids. Obtained results showed beneficial effects of selenium in alleviating oxidative stress in pea leaves caused by aphid feeding.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sabina Łukaszewicz
1
Barbara Politycka
1
Beata Borowiak-Sobkowiak
2

  1. Department of Plant Physiology, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poznań, Poland
  2. Department of Entomology and Environmental Protection, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poznań, Poland
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Abstract

Characterization of angular leaf spot (ALS) disease of beans caused by Pseudocercospora griseola (Sacc.) Crous & Braun along with its occurrence was investigated using 118 isolates obtained from beans grown in greenhouses in the western Black Sea region of Turkey. Incidences of ALS disease ranged between 77–100% and 82–100% for summer and autumn sown bean cultivations while the disease severity was in the ranges of 66–82% and 74–86% for the same periods, respectively. All of the 118 isolates of P. griseola yielded 500–560 bp PCR products from ITS1 and ITS4 primers, while 45 isolates yielded 200–250 bp products from actin genes primer and 5 isolates yielded 300–350 bp from calmodulin primer. The form of the Turkish isolates of P. griseola was determined as f. griseola since ITS sequences of 118 isolates of P. griseola showed between 98–100% similarity to the isolates of P. griseola f. griseola deposited in GenBank and our isolates took place on the same branch on the phylogenetic tree formed by the representative isolates in GenBank. The actin sequences did not give a clear differentiation for the forms of P. griseola. The phylogenetic trees generated by ITS1, ITS2 and actin genes formed similar branches. Each had two main clade and similar sub clades.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sirel Canpolat
1
Salih Maden
2

  1. Department of Phytopathology, Ankara Plant Protection Central Research Institute, Ankara, Turkey
  2. Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey
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Abstract

The present study investigated the potential use of the nano-emulsion of Lippia multiflora Mold. essential oil in managing the cabbage pest ( Brassica oleracea L.) in two Ivorian areas (Yamoussoukro and Korhogo) during the wet seasons (April-September 2018). The nano- -emulsion was tested against cabbage diamondback moth ( Plutella xylostella), aphid ( Brevicoryne brassicae), webworm ( Hellula undalis), cutworm ( Spodoptera exigua) and whitefly ( Bemisia tabaci) under field conditions. The efficacy of essential oil emulsion was compared with the synthetic pesticide Karate 5 EC (Lambda cyhalothrin 52 g · l–1). The results indicated that the nano-emulsion of essential oil gave better control of the cabbage insect pest than the untreated plots. For all the insects studied, the nano-emulsion was very effective towards the species B. brassicae and P. xylostella for which the reduction of the mean population was respectively, 28.48 ± 0.2 and 0.6 ± 0.02 in Yamoussoukro and 0.0 and 7.11 ± 0.16 in Korhogo, compared to 45.32 ± 0.43 and 15.89 ± 0.23, respectively, for untreated plots. The yields of cabbage heads obtained in both areas Yamoussoukro and Korhogo were 4.7 and 15, respectively. The head damage percentages were 23.3% in Yamoussoukro and 26.7% in Korhogo when the fields were sprayed with nano-emulsion and were 13.3% and 28.3%, respectively, when the cabbages were treated with the synthetic pesticide. The formulation obtained here might be an interesting alternative for integrated pest management of cabbage.
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Authors and Affiliations

Vama Etienne Tia
1
Soumahoro Gueu
2
Mohamed Cissé
1
Yalamoussa Tuo
3
Ayekpa Jean Gnago
4
Eugène Konan
5

  1. Département Biochimie – Génétique, Université Peleforo Gon Coulibaly, BP1328 Korhogo, Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast)
  2. Laboratoire des Procédés Industriels de Synthèse, de l’Environnement et des Energies Nouvelles (LAPISEN), Institut National Polytechnique Félix Houphouët Boigny, BP1093 Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast)
  3. Département Biologie Animale, Université Peleforo Gon Coulibaly, BP1328 Korhogo, Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast)
  4. Laboratoire de Zoologie Agricole et d’Entomologie, Institut National Polytechnique Félix Houphouët-Boigny, BP1093 Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast)
  5. Département de Recherche et Développement, Compagnie Ivoirienne de Coton (COIC), BP193 Korhogo, Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast)
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Abstract

The squash beetle Epilachna chrysomelina (F.) is an important insect pest which causes severe damage to cucurbit plants in Iraq. The aims of this study were to isolate and characterize an endogenous isolate of Myrothecium-like species from cucurbit plants and from soil in order to evaluate its pathogenicity to squash beetle. Paramyrothecium roridum (Tode) L. Lombard & Crous was isolated, its phenotypic characteristics were identified and ITS rDNA sequence analysis was done. The pathogenicity of P. roridum strain (MT019839) was evaluated at a concentration of 107 conidia · ml–1) water against larvae and adults of E. chrysomelina under laboratory conditions. The results revealed the pathogenicity of the isolate to larvae with variations between larvae instar responses. The highest mortality percentage was reported when the adults were placed in treated litter and it differed significantly from adults treated directly with the pathogen. Our results documented for the first time that P. roridum has potential as an insect pathogen.
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Authors and Affiliations

Feyroz Ramadan Hassan
1
Nacheervan Majeed Ghaffar
2
Lazgeen Haji Assaf
3
Samir Khalaf Abdullah
4

  1. Department of Plant Protection, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Duhok, Iraq
  2. Duhok Research Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Duhok University, Kurdistan Region, Duhok, Iraq
  3. Plant Protection, General Directorate of Agriculture-Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Duhok, Iraq
  4. Department of Medical Laboratory Techniques, Al-Noor University College, Nineva, Iraq

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