Science and earth science

Acta Geologica Polonica

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Acta Geologica Polonica | 2021 | vol. 71 | No 2 |

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Abstract

The nature of the Cenomanian–Turonian Oceanic Anoxic Event (CTOAE) and its δ13 C Excursion is considered in the light of (1) the stratigraphical framework in which the CTOAE developed in the European shelf seas, (2) conclusions that can be drawn from new detailed investigations of the Chalk succession at three locations in England, at Melton Ross and Flixton in the Northern Province where organic-rich ‘black bands’ are present, and at Dover in the Southern Province (part of the Anglo-Paris Basin) where they are absent, and (3) how these conclusion fit in with the present understanding of the CTOAE. The application of the cerium anomaly method (German and Elderfield 1990) at Dover, Melton Ross and Flixton has allowed the varying palaeoredox conditions in the Chalk Sea and its sediments to be related to the acid insoluble residues, organic carbon, δ18O (calcite), δ13C (calcite), δ13C (organic matter), Fe 2+ and Mn2+ (calcite), and P/TiO2 (acid insoluble residue). This has provided evidence that the initial stages of the δ13C Excursion in England were related to (1) a drop of sea level estimated at between 45 and 85 metres, (2) influxes of terrestrial silicate and organic detritus from adjacent continental sources and the reworking of exposed marine sediments, and (3) the presence of three cold water phases (named the Wood, Jefferies and Black) associated with the appearance of the cold-water pulse fauna during the Plenus Cold Event. Conditions in the water column and in the chalk sediment were different in the two areas. In the Northern Province, cerium-enriched waters and anoxic conditions were widespread; the δ13C pattern reflects the interplay between the development of anoxia in the water column and the preservation of terrestrial and marine organic matter in the black bands; here the CTOAE was short-lived (~0.25 Ma) lasting only the length of the Upper Cenomanian Metoicoceras geslinianum Zone. In the Southern Province, water conditions were oxic and the δ13C Excursion lasted to the top of the Lower Turonian Watinoceras devonense Zone, much longer (~1.05 Ma) than in the Northern Province. These differences are discussed with respect to (1) the Cenomanian–Turonian Anoxic Event (CTAE) hypothesis when the ocean-continent-atmosphere systems were linked, (2) limitations of chemostratigraphic global correlation, and (3) the Cenomanian–Turonian Anoxic Event Recovery (CTOAER), a new term to define the varying lengths of time it took different oceans and seas to recover once the linked ocean-continent-atmosphere system was over. The possibility is considered that glacio- eustasy (the glacial control hypothesis of Jeans et al. 1991) with the waxing and waning of polar ice sheets, in association with the degassing of large igneous provinces, may have set the scene for the development of the Cenomanian–Turonian Anoxic Event (CTAE).
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Authors and Affiliations

Christophers V. Jeans
1
David S. Wray
2
C. Terry Williams
3
David J. Bland
4
Christopher J. Wood
5

  1. Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Place, Cambridge, CB2 3EN, UK
  2. School of Science, University of Greenwich, Pembroke, Chatham Maritime, Kent, ME4 4TB, UK
  3. Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London, SW7 5BD, UK
  4. 15 Pains Close, Pinner, Middlesex, HA5 3BN, UK
  5. Deceased
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Abstract

Balanomorph cirripedes from the Eocene–Oligocene of the Hampshire Basin (United Kingdom) and the Middle Eocene of the Cotentin Peninsula, Manche (France) are described. A new genus, Vectibalanus, is founded, with the type species Balanus unguiformis J. de C. Sowerby, 1846; assigned to this are also Balanus erisma J. de C. Sowerby, 1846 and Vectibalanus mortoni sp. nov. In addition, a new species of Lophobalanus Zullo, 1984, L. fresvillensis sp. nov., is described. This is the first record of that genus from outside the eastern USA and the oldest species known to date. Cladistic analysis of 24 morphological characters suggests that Vectibalanus unguiformis is sister taxon to a group comprising the most derived balanomorph taxa, and thus represents an important transition in the evolution of the group, with the initiation of development of a complex parietal wall structure. Vectibalanus unguiformis was evidently adapted to low salinity habitats (10–30 ppt), and is the oldest known brackish water barnacle. The other species ( V. erisma, V. mortoni sp. nov.) occupied more clearly marine environments (>30 ppt). Balanomorph barnacles appeared simultaneously in the Priabonian (Upper Eocene) of the Gulf and Atlantic seaboards of the USA and northwest Europe, which probably represents a northerly migration from Tethys.
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Authors and Affiliations

Andrew Scott Gale
1 2

  1. School of the Environment, Geography and Geological Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO13QL, UK
  2. Department of Earth Sciences, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW75BD, UK
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Abstract

The present contribution provides a study of calcareous nannofossils and siliceous microfossils from the Sawai Bay Formation on Car Nicobar Island, northern Indian Ocean. Two stratigraphically short sediment intervals near Sawai Bay have been examined. Qualitative and quantitative microfossil analyses show the Sawai Bay ‘A’ Section to be devoid of siliceous microfossils, while 24 well-preserved calcareous nannofossil taxa are identified. The Sawai Bay ‘B’ Section yields 18 calcareous nannofossil, 33 radiolarian and 25 diatom taxa. The calcareous nannofossil index taxa ( Ceratolithus armatus Müller, 1974a and C. cristatus Kamptner, 1950) indicate both sections to be from zones NN12 (CN10b) and NN13 (CN10c) of early Pliocene (Zanclean) age. The radiolarian taxa, i.e., Didymocyrtis avita Riedel, 1953, Euchitonia spp., Siphocampe lineata (Ehrenberg) Nigrini, 1977, Stichocorys peregrina Riedel, 1953, Semantis spp. and Stylochlamydium sp. are common in the Sawai Bay ‘B’ Section, which is assigned to Zone RN9. Most of the diatom taxa are represented by representatives of the genera Actinocyclus Ehrenberg, 1837, Azpeitia Peragallo in Tèmpere and Peragallo, 1912, Coscinodiscus Ehrenberg, 1839a, Grammatophora Ehrenberg, 1841 and Triceratium Ehrenberg, 1839b, with the benthic diatom species Triceratium favus Ehrenberg, 1839b being predominant (~35% of the total diatom count). Siliceous microfossils are also represented by silicoflagellates dominated by Dictyocha spp. and sponge spicules dominated by astrophorids.
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Authors and Affiliations

Arindam Chakraborty
1
Amit K. Ghosh
1
Kevin McCartney
2
Stuti Saxena
1
Rikee Dey
1
Lopamudra Roy
1

  1. Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, 53 University Road, Lucknow 226 007, India
  2. Department of Environmental Science and Sustainability, University of Maine at Presque Isle, Presque Isle, 04769 ME, USA
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Abstract

The paper is focused on the palaeographic development of the western part of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland, during the maximum extent of the Sanian 2 (MIS 12) ice sheet and its retreat. The studies were based on archival cartographic data, coupled with new lithological and petrographic analyses of limni- and fluvioglacial sands, i.e., grain-size composition, quartz grain morphology and heavy mineral analysis, as well as analysis of the erratic material of tills. The results confirm the regional variability of the erratic material in the Sanian 2 tills and point to the long-term development of fluvioglacial sands cover documenting cold climate conditions. They also evidence that the western part of the Holy Cross Mountains was the area where two oppositely directed ice sheet lobes (Radoszyce and Sandomierz) advanced during the Sanian 2 Glaciation and that deglaciation of the area took place in two stages. Huge quantities of meltwater released at that time contributed to the intensification of earlier initiated karst phenomena, as well as filling of the existing caves by fluvioglacial sands.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jan Dzierżek
1
Leszek Lindner
1
Krzysztof Cabalski
1
Jan Urban
2
Michał Cyglicki
3

  1. Faculty of Geology, University of Warsaw, Żwirki i Wigury 93, PL-02-089 Warszawa, Poland
  2. Institute of Nature Conservation, Polish Academy of Sciences, Adama Mickiewicza 33, PL- 31-120, Kraków
  3. Polish Geological Institute-National Research Institute, Rakowiecka 4, PL-00-975, Warszawa, Poland
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Abstract

In the Balkans, the Serbo-Macedonian Unit (SMU), Serbia, is thrust bounded by the composite Tethyan Vardar Zone and the Carpatho-Balkanides. The SMU actually emerges from beneath the Neoalpine Miocene–Pliocene deposits. Both provenance and geodynamic position of the SMU are poorly known and still debated. This paper reviews the data hitherto published and includes some new field data interpretations. The SMU is composed of a Neoproterozoic–Cambrian high-grade (para- and ortho-) gneiss with peraluminous magmatic arc components (560–470 Ma). The SMU is in the contact with Neoproterozoic upper Ordovician–Carboniferous low-grade metasedimentary succession of an accretionary wedge assembly represented by the Supragetic basement. The SMU basement became folded, sheared and metamorphosed around 490–450 Ma. Paleomagnetic data point to high southern latitudes and a peri-Gondwanan position of the SMU at that time, which concurs with glaciomarine evidence recorded from the upper Ordovician sediments at the base of an accretionary wedge succession. Based on the published data and field survey in the Stalać region, we correlate the SMU with the pre-Mesozoic gneiss terrane exposed in the Strona-Ceneri zone of the Alps. This terrane, identified as the Cenerian orogen of the Alaskan subduction type, developed at an active margin of Gondwana during middle Ordovician times. The SMU basement, with augen and migmatitic gneisses and arc-related peraluminous magmatic bodies, developed at this margin as part of the Cenerian belt or its equivalent. Such an orogenic edifice proved transient and in the earliest Silurian the SMU fragments drifted away being bound for Baltica (amalgamated Moesian microplate and Danubian terrane) to which they became accreted in the Carboniferous and included in the southern European branch of the Variscan orogen (Marginal Dacides/Carpatho-Balkanides). Despite considerable Variscan and Alpine reworking, the pre-Variscan, Cenerian-type crustal assembly along with an inferred boundary between the magmatic arc and the accretionary wedge, accompanied by back-arc/forearc deposits, are still decipherable in the Western Balkan countries.
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Authors and Affiliations

Darko Spahić
1
ORCID: ORCID
Zoran Bojić
1
Danica Popović
1
Tivadar Gaudenyi
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Geological Survey of Serbia, Rovinjska 12, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
  2. Geographical Institute “Jovan Cvijić” of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Djure Jakšića 9, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia

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